uttar pradesh history

The history of Uttar Pradesh is very old and fascinating and had a great impact on the Indian culture and civilization. Kosala figured prominently among the four powerful monarchies of northern India during the time of the Buddha when its Prosperity reached its zenith. Of those, seven fell entirely within the present-day boundaries of Uttar Pradesh. Lucknow is the capital city and Allahabad is the Judiciary Capital of the state. The lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilization. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Uttar Pradesh is the rainbow land where the multi-hued Indian Culture has blossomed from times immemorial. The Copper Hoards of the Indian Subcontinent: Preliminaries for an Interpretation, Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 36, 193–275, ISSN 0076-2741. Among the great kings who ruled over the region were Chandragupta (reigned c. 321–297 bce) and Ashoka (3rd century bce), both Mauryan emperors, as well as Samudra Gupta (4th century ce) and Chandra Gupta II (reigned c. 380–415). The remains of several human skeletons found in the area of Partapgarh (Pratapgarh) have been dated to about 10,000 bce. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state of India. Two great epics of India, Ramayana and Mahabharata, appear to have been inspired by Uttar Pradesh. [35], After India's independence, the United Provinces were reorganized as Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The religion he founded, Buddhism, spread not only across India but also to many distant lands, such as China and Japan. [citation needed]. The state has been affected by repeated episodes of caste and communal violence.[36]. 1992, a large group of Hindu activists demolished the 16th-century Babri Mosque in the city of Ayodhya, which is claimed to be the site of Ram Janmabhoomi. It will not only be insightful but, being revision friendly, it will be helpful for quick last-minute revision. Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 150… The early modern period in the region started in 1526 after Babur invaded the Delhi Sultanate, and established the Mughal Empire covering large parts of modern Uttar Pradesh. Falk, Harry. The Taj Mahal is considered one of the most significant examples of Indo-Islamic architecture. Gupta, S.P. The history of Uttar Pradesh is very old and fascinating and had a great impact on the Indian culture and civilization. Other pre-historical finds have included Middle and Upper Paleolithic artifacts dated to 21–31 thousand years old[5] and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer's settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. The history of Uttar Pradesh still has a great impact on Indian culture and civilization. [10] Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (Avatar) of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh. The state has provided seven of India's prime ministers and is the source of the largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. He ruled his […] After India’s Independence, this land was renamed as Uttar Pradesh on January 24, 1950. Akbar, its greatest exponent, employed in his court men preeminent in architecture, literature, painting, and music, irrespective of their caste or creed. According to tradition, it was during that period—likely sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries bce—that the Buddha preached his first sermon at Sarnath, near Varanasi. Uttar Pradesh has a rich historical heritage and it would not be wrong to state that the history of Uttar Pradesh plays a key role in defining the lifestyle of the present day Uttar Pradesh. In the 18th century, after the fall of Mughal authority, the power vacuum was filled by the Maratha Empire, in the mid 18th century, the Maratha army invaded the Uttar Pradesh region, which resulted in Rohillas losing control of Rohillkhand to the Maratha rulers Raghunath Rao and Malharao Holkar. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in North-west India, around 1000 BC. Jahangir was succeeded by his son Shah Jahan. [14] Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Agra.[18][19]. During the first half of that time, the rulers were members of the Delhi sultanate. Uttar Pradesh for its strategic position, in ancient times was known the Madhya Desh. At first, Buddhist and Brahmanic or Hindu culture flourished side by side. Uttar Pradesh/Economy. 2015-09-18 Government of Uttar Pradesh, India, confirms 2.3 million people applied for 238 menial office jobs; 2017-06-05 Bus crashes with a truck in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, 22 die in resulting fire; 2017-09-14 19 people die when a boat capsizes on Yamun River in Uttar Pradesh, India; 2017-11-27 8 Donkeys freed from jail after 4 days in Orai, Uttar Pradesh, India for eating plants Uttar Pradesh Gk , History , important facts , Political Structure for Exams ... Uttar Pradesh GK & Current Affairs July to October 2017 - UPSSSC / UP PCS / UP PSC & other UP Exams - … Nationally known figures such as Chandra Shekhar Azad were among the leaders of the movement in Uttar Pradesh, and Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Madan Mohan Malaviya and Gobind Ballabh Pant were important national leaders of the Indian National Congress. Hindu art experienced its greatest development during the period of rule by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th century ce). The history of Uttar Pradesh the Northern Indian state, stretches back technically to its formation on 1 April 1937 as the North-Western Provinces of Agra and Awadh, but the region itself shows the presence of human habitation dating back to between 85,000 and 73,000 years ago. Stretching from the north-west territories to the eastern states its history is almost synonymous to the history of north India. In the sixth century B.C., Uttar Pradesh was associated with two new r… The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. Beck, Munich, Yule, P./Hauptmann, A./Hughes, M. 1989 [1992]. Stupa commemorating where the Buddha was said to have first taught his followers, Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh, India. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago. This land has been rules by many in the course of history. Kusumanjali Prakashan, Jodhpur. 2001. In this article of series of UP Special, we will read about the ancient history of Uttar Pradesh. Although Muslim incursions into the area occurred as early as 1000–30 ce, Muslim rule over northern India was not established until the last decade of the 12th century, when MuÊ¿izz al-DÄ«n Muḥammad ibn Sām (Muḥammad GhÅ«rÄ«) defeated the Gahadavalas (who occupied much of Uttar Pradesh) and other competing dynasties. The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, with the famous nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President,[33] in order to address the longstanding grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers movements in India. info), líkas: Pangulung Lalawigan), [maralas deng ausang U.P. Although UP later became the fifth largest state of India, NWPA was one of the smallest states of the British Indian empire. Shah Jahan is famous for building the Taj Mahal, a mausoleum for his queen Mumtaz Mahal. Rome: IsMEO (Istituto Italiano Per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente). They minced no words in calling the Yogi government one of the most corrupt governments in the history of Uttar Pradesh. Other knowledge of the area prior to the 7th century bce has been gained largely through Vedic literature (of the ancient Indian Vedic religion) and the two great Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, which describe the Gangetic Plain within Uttar Pradesh. Uttar Pradesh/History. Uttar Pradesh/Politics. History Uttar Pradesh, abbreviated U.P., is a state locatedin northern India. Politics. Uttar Pradesh - History. [26] Ajmer and Jaipur kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was named the "North-Western Provinces" (of Agra). Indian Studies Past and Present 4, 333–358. The epics of Hinduism, the Ramayana, and the Mahabharata, were written in Uttar Pradesh. In 2000, the state of Uttarakhand was carved out from Uttar pradesh, Archeological finds have indicated the presence of Stone Age Homo sapiens hunter-gatherers in Uttar Pradesh[1][2][3] between around[4] 85 and 73 thousand years old. The history of Uttar Pradesh can be divided into five periods: (1) prehistory and mythology (up to c. 600 bce), (2) the Buddhist-Hindu period (c. 600 bce to c. 1200 ce), (3) the Muslim period (c. 1200 to c. 1775), (4) the British period (c. 1775 to 1947), and (5) the postindependence period (1947 to the present). The History of India by Kenneth Pletcher p.102, The City in South Asia by James Heitzman p.37, "Prehistoric human colonization of India", The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire), God-Apes and Fossil Men: Palaeoanthropology of South Asia, "Modern Human Origins and the Evolution of Behavior in the Later Pleistocene Record of South Asia", The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture, https://web.archive.org/web/20060908052731/http://pubweb.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp/indus/english/3_1_01.html, "Project MUSE – Journal of World History", The History and Culture of the Indian People, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Uttar_Pradesh&oldid=969128641, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. History Tajmahal. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Agra was founded by Sultan Sikander Lodhi in 1506.; After Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi ascended to the throne of Agra, who was defeated by Babur in the first battle of Panipat in 1526 and Babur established the Mughal Empire. [27] Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad. They alleged Uttar Pradesh police were persecuting people of other castes, other than Thakurs because the Chief Minister belonged to Thakur caste. “Prayagasya […] Uttar Pradesh is 4th largest state by area and top most state by population. In 1526 Bābur—a descendant of the conquerors Genghis Khan and Timur (Tamerlane)—defeated Sultan IbrāhÄ«m LodÄ« of Delhi and laid the foundation of the most successful of the Muslim dynasties, the Mughals, whose empire, centred in what is now Uttar Pradesh, dominated the subcontinent for more than 200 years. The region was the site of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, with revolts at Meerut, Kanpur, and Lucknow. [6][7][8], The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. There are many Mythological facts about the great historical value of district Bahraich. The Buddha is said to have attained parinirvana (complete nirvana) at Kushinagara (now in Kasia, in eastern Uttar Pradesh). From the 5th century bce to the 6th century ce, the region was mostly under the control of powers centred outside the modern boundaries of the state, first at Magadha in present-day Bihar and later at Ujjain in present-day Madhya Pradesh. [24], Starting from Bengal in the second half of the 18th century, a series of battles for north Indian lands finally gave the British East India Company accession over the state's territories. Formerly the area of Uttar Pradesh was occupied by the Aryans or the Dasas and their main occupation was agriculture. All these reivers except Gomti emerge from Himalayas. Due to is position, most invaders crossed it in the course of their invasions. Its official and widely spoken languages are Hindi and Urdu. Uttar Pradesh which includes a big chuck of Gangetic Plain was created as United Provinces in 1937 during British rule and after independence it was renamed as Uttar Pradesh in 1950. [9], Most of the invaders of south India passed through the Gangetic plains of what is today Uttar Pradesh. History of district Bahraich The dense forests and fast-flowing rivers are the specialities of district Bahraich. Even today Northeast […] In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. In 1803, following the Second Anglo-Maratha War, when the British East India Company defeated the Maratha Empire, much of the region came under British suzerainty. Buland Darwaza (Victory Gate) of the JāmiÊ¿ Masjid (Great Mosque) at Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India. The meeting point is known as Triveni and is especially sacred to Hindus. Lakhimpur Kheeri is the largest district of Uttar Pradesh by area. It dates back to 4000 years. Sharma, Deo Prakash, 2002. The earlier settlements of the Aryans were established in this city, then known as Prayag. Archaeological investigations have shed new light on the prehistoric civilization of what is now Uttar Pradesh. After independence in 1947, the United Provinces were renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The city of Prayagraj is among the largest cities of Uttar Pradesh and situated at the confluence of three rivers- Ganga, Yamuna and the invisible Saraswati. History Azamgarh, one of the easternmost districts of the State, once formed a part of the ancient Kosala kingdom, except the north-eastern part of it which was included in the kingdom of Malla. edit. After the death of Harsha, about 647, there was a gradual downfall of Buddhism accompanied by a revival of Hinduism. Facts about Uttar Pradesh – The state of Uttar Pradesh lies in the northern part of India. edit. A systematic history of India and the area of Uttar Pradesh dates to the end of the 7th century bce, when 16 mahajanapadas (great states) in northern India were contending for supremacy. The region was also a site for the Indian Independence movement with the Indian National Congress. The chief architect of that revival, the philosopher Shankara, born in southern India, visited Varanasi, traveled through the plains of Uttar Pradesh, and is thought to have established the famous temple at Badrinath (now in Uttarakhand) in the Himalayas. History. It was formed in 1937 when it was called the United Province of Agra and Oudh. The setting of the Mahabharata is the area around Hastinapur, in the western part of the present-day state, while the Ramayana is set in and around Ayodhya, the birthplace of Rama (an incarnation of the god Vishnu and the hero of the story). In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern-day Uzbekistan), swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh[17] The Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks (with significant Mongol admixture). Geography. The region seems to have been domesticated as early as 6,000 BC. The great war of the Mahabharata between the Kauravas and Pandavas was said to have been fought here. [9] The aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira. Uttar Pradesh: A political history Over the last 25 years, a fractured verdict has been typical of India’s biggest, most important, and most complex political battleground.

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